Problem-solving wisdom: We live in a world full of problems. Problems are everywhere and always. From a certain perspective, the value of thinking is mainly reflected in problem solving: whether a person can succeed is reflected in whether a person can face and solve problems. Even MBA teaching also regards the cultivation of the ability to analyze and solve problems as its Main features…
Problem solving wisdom 1. Problem definition: What is the problem?
When it comes to solving problems, people often have the first feeling that they want to find a good way to solve the problem immediately. Such an idea is not unreasonable, but if you start directly from the method, it may not be able to solve the problem ideally, and it may even fall into a trap.
So where do you start? In my opinion, we should start by defining the problem, that is, to ask “What is the problem?”
In the 1950s, the world was studying germanium, the raw material for manufacturing transistors. Everyone believed that the biggest problem was how to refine germanium to be more pure.
Dr. Jiang from Sony Corporation of Japan and his assistant Yuriko Kuroda explored this, but some substances were inevitably mixed in, and each measurement showed different data. Later they reflected: The purpose of studying this issue is nothing more than to make germanium more capable of making better transistors. Why do we have to fall into the question of how to refine germanium more purely?
Therefore, they removed the original premise and opened up a new way, that is, deliberately adding impurities little by little to see what kind of germanium crystals it can produce. As a result, when the purity of germanium was reduced to half of its original value, an ideal crystal was produced. This invention made a sensation all over the world. Dr. Jiang and Yuriko Kuroda won the Nobel Prize and the Private Nobel Prize respectively.
Let’s make a comparison:
wrong definition: purification of germanium.
Define it correctly: make better transistors.
Problem Solving Wisdom 2. The “means-→objective” analysis method
solves many problems not simply in one step, but in many steps. So how to solve it? The most effective method is “means → purpose” analysis, also called forward analysis.
Problem solving is divided into an initial state and a goal state. The initial state is the current state, and the goal state is the state where the problem is finally solved. The purpose of the “means→objective” analysis method is to find the difference between the initial state and the target state, and put forward some sub-goals as the intermediary state. Through the realization of each sub-goal, the subsequent intermediary state is closer to the goal. Until the final goal is reached.
When Wei Bo was young, he wanted to meet Qi Xiang and Cao Shen. Because of his poor family background and low status, he could not collude. Later, he thought of a tortuous way to clean the doorway close to Qi Xiangshe people every morning. At first, Sheren felt puzzled and thought it was a monster. Later, he peeped around and found Wei Bo. Ask him why he does this every day? Wei said, “I want to meet Qi Xiang, but I didn’t have a chance, so I cleaned the house for you, and I beg you to introduce me.” So he recommended Wei Bo and Qi Xiang Cao Shen.
In this case, Wei Bo wanted to see Cao Shen but couldn’t see it directly, so he first obtained his favor and help by serving his subordinates free of charge, and then reached his goal. Achieving its goodwill is the sub-goal. Through this sub-goal, and further development, the final goal will be reached.
Problem Solving Wisdom 3. “Means ← End” analysis method
This is the opposite analysis method of “means-→ end method”.
Its characteristics are: first determine the goal, and then consider what sub-goal must be achieved to achieve this goal, and then consider what sub-goal must be achieved to achieve the sub-goal, and so on. When all the sub-goals have achieved their effect, the problem is solved.
Reverse decomposition by the goal-means.
The “means ← purpose” analysis method is actually a “removal method”. All sub-goals are actually sub-obstacle elimination. The process by which individual goals are achieved is the process by which individual obstacles are eliminated. It is divided into several stages:
Step 1: Identify the goal of solving the problem
Step 2: Determine the obstacles that hinder the goal
Step 3: Analyze the cause of the obstacle
Step 4: Prescribe the right medicine to remove the obstacle
Problem Solving Wisdom IV. Eight Stages of Problem Solving
(1) A clear goal-the core of “defining the problem” is to clarify: “What is the problem?”
(2) Seek a plan —— Through many aspects of thinking, seek different plans.
(3) Comparing the pros and cons-list the pros and cons of various programs one by one, and focus on the comparison from the following aspects:
1. Which program is more valuable?
2. Which scheme is more operative?
3. Which scheme is more creative?
4. Which option has the least cost?
5. Which option has the least negative effect?
(4) Choosing a plan —— Through the above comparison, choose a most suitable plan
(E) as a means to refine the program
1. Identify the objectives of the program
2. Divide the plan into various tasks
3. Clarify the key points of the realization plan
4. Clarify procedures
5. Know who and where will be executed
(6) Implementation of the payment-when the plan is clear, it should be implemented. But before implementing it, it is necessary to check your own decision and the process of your own decision, so that you can truly grasp that the plan is not only correct, but also that nothing has been missed. If these checks have been completed, there will be nothing. The problem, it’s time to act.
(7) Feedback control
1. Compare the current situation with the plan, and when things don’t go according to plan, find out the problems.
2. When new variables and new problems arise, we must adopt new countermeasures, or change plans, or adopt new countermeasures in accordance with the new situation.
Problem solving wisdom 5. Problem conversion method
Many problems cannot be solved by direct methods or are very difficult. However, if the problem is converted, the problem will be solved very well.
Problem conversion is a curve-solving method. Its formula can be expressed as: “A” problem is actually (qualitatively) “B” problem, or to solve “A” problem, it is to solve “B” problem. Problem conversion mainly includes: problem type conversion, problem horizon conversion, problem focus conversion, problem situation conversion, problem direction conversion, problem object conversion, problem hierarchy conversion, and so on.
The following is an example of solving the problem better through problem type conversion.
Wiener is the inventor of cybernetics. When he was still 5 years old, he was suddenly fascinated by the mathematical law of ab=ba. He had a whim and determined to prove it himself. After thinking for a long time, I finally proved it with a simple method; turning a rectangle 90 degrees, the length becomes wide, the width becomes long, and the area remains the same.
In this way, the algebra problem has become a geometric problem, and the problem is solved very well after the type conversion.
Problem Solving Wisdom VI. Constructive Handling of
Dilemmas Dilemmas are the most restricted and the most difficult of all problems. The dilemma, the difficulty lies in the two possible choices, no matter which choice has pros and cons, it is in a difficult situation. How to solve the dilemma reflects the highest level of problem solving.
To grasp the principle of the dilemma, we must follow the “law of maximum value for a complete victory” in “Mechanics of Mind”, which not only compromises on certain principles, but also reflects flexibility in specific operations.
Little Strauss is the son of the “King of Waltz” old Strauss. After her mother was abandoned by her father, she painstakingly cultivated the young Strauss and made him a great achievement. But the old Strauss used his power in the music industry to force the major dance halls in Vienna to shut out the young Strauss. He had to go to the garden of a café on the outskirts of the city to hold a big concert.
Every program of Little Strauss ushered in enthusiastic applause. Among them, the waltz “The Poem of Reason” was repeatedly performed more than a dozen times at the request of the fascinated audience. Even the old Strauss agent had brought people to make trouble, and he also heartily drummed up. Hold your palms up.
Finally, Strauss asked the audience to quiet down. Under his command, the orchestra played a soft movement that was not listed on the program list. The audience couldn’t believe their ears, because: This is the most famous waltz of the old Strauss “The Charming Songs on the Rhine”. Everyone finally understands its meaning: Young Strauss’s performance of his father’s work is not only as a tribute to the children’s parents, but also as a plea for the father’s forgiveness. The audience couldn’t help but tears into their eyes.
In this case, Jr. Strauss not only demonstrated his ability well, even if he was his father, don’t want to suppress it. This is a point; at the same time, he also showed his broad mind and affection for his father. , This is the combination of separation and combination, which produced unexpectedly good results.